Illuminate Legal Terminology™
Law Explorers

Legal research, legal writing, and legal translation are the lights that illuminate the dark, unknown regions in the universe of law.

Research

Can we translate our customary methods and techniques when research transports us into another legal culture?

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Writing

Cultures and legal systems other than our own have made valuable contributions to the history of written law.

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Translation

Translation provides a laboratory in which we can learn to elevate our capacity to select and use legal terminology.

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REFERENCES

Acknowledgements

Law Explorers® is grateful to all who have inspired this website with their invaluable questions, answers, comments, and suggestions.  Law Explorers® is especially grateful to María del Socorro Un Cauich for her help with proofreading, to Dr. Bin Lin and Dr. Jun Xu for their help with the Chinese language, and to the staff of the O'Quinn Law Library at the University of Houston Law Center for their help in locating resources.

Content, errors, and omissions

The founder and editor-in-chief of Law Explorers®, Frank Edward Taylor, wrote the content of this website except the Home page and provided the translations or paraphrases of materials for the specific purpose of inclusion on this website.  Except for a limited number of editorial changes by Law Explorers®, the content of the Home page was composed by Craig Wallach of Cybermark International, Inc., which performed the initial search engine optimization for this website.

Law Explorers® is, of course, responsible for any errors or omissions on this website.  Please contact Law Explorers® at errors.omissions@lawexplorers.com to report an error or omission on this website, particularly with respect to any reference, quotation, or paraphrase or with respect to any copyright, trademark, or other property right.  The Contact Law Explorers® page provides additional contact information.

Editorial practices

The editorial practices of Law Explorers® are generally based on the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style.  In some instances, however, Law Explorers® has consulted other sources or made adaptations or exceptions.  These are some of the notable points:

  • the use of italics to call attention to terms and quotations in languages other than English;
  • the replacement of single quotation marks by double quotation marks;
  • the omission of emphasis, footnotes, or references in some quotations;
  • the use of quotation marks to indicate the emphasis of English terms.

References

Law Explorers® wants you to accumulate your own library of useful and thought-provoking books, websites, and other resources.  The list below is designed to serve two purposes:

  • acknowledge authors, editors, and publishers of books and owners or sponsors of online resources that have influenced the development of this website;
  • help you begin or continue your own exploration of the language, terminology, research, writing, translation, and systems of law.

References on this website to books, websites, and other publications, sources, or services do not imply that the authors, publishers, sponsors, or providers of those publications, sources, or services have endorsed or approved Law Explorers®, the content of this website, or any service offered on this website.

Enjoy!

Websites and online dictionaries:

Dictionaries, encyclopedias, thesauri & manuals:

  • Alcaraz Varó, Enrique, and Brian Hughes.  Diccionario de Términos Jurídicos: A Dictionary of Legal Terms; Inglés-Español; Spanish-English.  10th ed.  Barcelona: Ariel, 2008.
  • Allan, Keith.  “Semantics: Overview.”  In Frawley, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, 4:1-7.
  • Alland, Denis and Stéphanie Rials, eds.  Dictionnaire de la culture juridique.  Paris: Quadrige/Lamy-Presses Universitaires de France, 2007.
  • Baker, Mona, and Gabriela Saldanha, eds.  Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies.  2nd ed.  London: Routledge, 2011.
  • Baldick, Chris, comp.  The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms.  2nd ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Barnhart, Cynthia, Erin McKean, Constance Baboukis, and Christine Lindberg, eds.  The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Abbreviations.  New York: Berkley Books, 2004.
  • Barnhart, Robert K., and Sol Steinmetz, eds.  Chambers Dictionary of Etymology.  Edinburgh: Chambers, 2008.
  • Bartlett, John.  Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations: A Collection of Passages, Phrases, and Proverbs Traced to Their Sources in Ancient and Modern Literature.  Edited by Justin Kaplan.  17th ed.  Boston: Little, Brown, 2002.
  • Bastin, Georges L.  “Adaptation.”  Translated by Mark Gregson.  In Baker and Saldanha, Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, 3-6.
  • Benedict, Gerald.  The Watkins Dictionary of Religions and Secular Faiths.  London: Watkins, 2008.
  • Bergenholtz, Henning.  “Basic Issues in Specialised Lexicography: LGP and LSP.”  In Bergenholtz and Tarp, Manual of Specialised Lexicography, 16-20.
  • ———.  “Selection: Lemma Selection.”  In Bergenholtz and Tarp, Manual of Specialised Lexicography, 98-104.
  • Bergenholtz, Henning, and Sven Tarp, eds.  Manual of Specialised Lexicography: The Preparation of Specialised Dictionaries.  With contributions by Grete Duvå, Anna-Lise Laursen, Sandro Nielson, Ole Norling-Christensen, and Jette Pedersen.  Benjamins Translation Library 12.  Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1995.
  • Bierce, Ambrose.  The Devil’s Dictionary.  New York: Dover Publications, [1958].
  • Bix, Brian H.  A Dictionary of Legal Theory.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Blackburn, Simon, comp.  The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy.  2nd ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
  • Bloch, Oscar, and Walther von Wartburg.  Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue française.  3rd ed.  Paris: Quadrige/Presses Universitaires de France, 2009.
  • Bothamley, Jennifer, ed.  Dictionary of Theories.  Detroit: Visible Ink Press, 2002.
  • Boulet-Sautel, Marguerite, and Jean-Louis Harouel.  “Glose et exégèse.”  In Alland and Rials, Dictionnaire de la culture juridique.  765-68.
  • Britannica World Language Dictionary.  In Webster’s Third New International Dictionary: Of the English Language Unabridged; with Seven Language Dictionary.  Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, [1971].  3:2665-3136.
  • Brown, Keith, and Keith Allan, eds.  Concise Encyclopedia of Semantics.  Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009.
  • Buck, Carl Darling.  A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages: A Contribution to the History of Ideas.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.
  • Burns, Augustus M., III.  “Sweatt v. Painter.”  In Hall, The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States, 993-94.
  • Burton, William C.  Burton’s Legal Thesaurus.  Edited by Brian Burton.  4th ed.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007.
  • Casado, María Laura, [ed.].  Diccionario de sinónimos jurídicos.  3rd ed.  Buenos Aires: Valletta Ediciones, 2008.
  • Caws, Peter.  “Scientific Method.”  In Edwards, The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 7:339-43.
  • Chamizo-Domínguez, P.  “False Friends.”  In Brown and Allan, Concise Encyclopedia of Semantics, 308-10.
  • Chêne, Christian.  “Enseignement du droit.”  In Alland and Rials, Dictionnaire de la culture juridique.  617-25.
  • Cisneros Farías, Germán.  Diccionario jurídico: Más de 750 frases y aforismos latinos.  2nd ed.  Estudios jurídicos 51.  México: Trillas, 2009.
  • Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary: Complete Text Reproduced Micrographically, The.  1971 ed.  2 vols.  [New York]: Oxford University Press, 1977.
  • Cornog, Mary Wood.  Merriam-Webster’s Vocabulary Builder.  2nd ed.  Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 2010.
  • Cooper, J.C.  An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Traditional Symbols.  New York: Thames and Hudson, 1979.
  • Cornu, Gérard, ed.  Vocabulaire juridique.  Revised by Marie Cornu, Marie Goré, Yves Lequette, Anne-Marie Leroyer, and Jean-Louis Sourioux.  9th ed.  Paris: Quadrige/Presses Universitaires de France, 2011.
  • Cornu, Gérard, ed.  Vocabulaire juridique.  8th ed.  Paris: Quadrige/Presses Universitaires de France, 2009.
  • Coulmas, Florian.  The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems.  Oxford: Blackwell, 1999.
  • Coulson, S.  “Metaphor and Conceptual Blending.”  In Brown and Allan, Concise Encyclopedia of Semantics, 543-50.
  • Cowie, A.  “Lexicology.”  In Brown and Allan, Concise Encyclopedia of Semantics, 484-89.
  • Crim, Keith, ed.  Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions.  With the assistance of Roger A. Bullard and Larry D. Shinn.  Nashville: Abingdon, 1981.
  • Cronin, Michael.  “Globalization.”  In Baker and Saldanha, Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, 126-29.
  • Crystal, David.  The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language.  3rd ed.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
  • ———.  A Dictionary of Language.  2nd ed.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
  • Dacosta Esteban, Joaquín, ed.  Diccionario de sinónimos y antónimos.  With the assistance of Ana María Sánchez Mora, Laura Zorrilla Ortiz de Urbina, Patricia Villamor García, Lyliana Colotto Navarece, Marina Conde Morala, Alicia Martínez Yuste, and Juan Fernández Fernández.  Madrid: Gredos, 2009.
  • Daintith, John, and Elizabeth Martin, eds.  A Dictionary of Science.  6th ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Danesi, Marcel.  Encyclopedic Dictionary of Semiotics, Media, and Communications. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008.
  • Darton, Mike, and John Clark.  The Macmillan Dictionary of Measurement.  New York: Macmillan, 1994.
  • Davies, Anna Morpurgo.  “Bréal, Michel.”  In Frawley, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, 1:249.
  • Delahunty, Andrew, Sheila Dignen, and Penny Stock, eds.  The Oxford Dictionary of Allusions.  2nd ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Doxey, Denise M.  “Thoth.”  In Redford, ed., The Oxford Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology, 353-55.
  • Duvå, Grete, and Anna-Lise Laursen.  “Preliminary Work: User survey.”  In Bergenholtz and Tarp, Manual of Specialised Lexicography, 77-83.
  • Edwards, Paul, ed.  The Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  8 vols.  New York: Macmillan, 1972.
  • Esposito, John L., ed.  The Oxford Dictionary of Islam.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Fletcher, Matthew L.M.  “Native American Law.”  In Katz, The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History, Volume 4: Land–Provincial Edicts and Government, 206-14.
  • Fowler, Roger.  “Meaning, Theories of.”  In Bothamley, Dictionary of Theories, 336.
  • Frawley, William J., ed.  International Encyclopedia of Linguistics.  2nd ed.  4 vols.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Garner, Bryan A., ed.  “Appendix B: Legal Maxims.”  In Garner, Black’s Law Dictionary, 1815-80.
  • ———.  Garner’s Dictionary of Legal Usage.  3rd ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • ———.  A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage.  2nd ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
  • ———, ed.  Black’s Law Dictionary.  9th ed.  St. Paul: West, 2009.
  • ———.  Garner’s Modern American Usage.  3rd ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Gόmez de Silva, Guido.  Breve diccionario etimológico de la lengua española.  2nd ed.  México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2009.
  • Gran diccionario Oxford: Español-inglés; inglés-español.  Edited by Beatriz Galimberti Jarman, Roy Russell, Nicholas Rollin, and Carol Styles Carvajal.  4th ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
  • Grant, John P., and J. Craig Barker.  Parry & Grant Encyclopædic Dictionary of International Law.  3rd ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Hacker, Diana.  Rules for Writers.  With contributions by Nancy Sommers, Tom Jehn, Jane Rosenzweig, and Marcy Carbajal Van Horn.  6th ed.  Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009.
  • Hall, Kermit L., ed.  The Oxford Companion to American Law.  With the assistance of David S. Clark, James W. Ely Jr., Joel Grossman, and N.E.H. Hull.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • ———, ed.  The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States.  With the assistance of James W. Ely Jr. and Joel B. Grossman.  2nd ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Halpérin, Jean-Louis.  “Code Napoléon (Préparation, rédaction et évolution).”  In Alland and Rials, Dictionnaire de la culture juridique.  200-208.
  • Hamp, Eric P.  “Etymology.”  In Frawley, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, 2:7-12.
  • Harbaugh, Rick.  Chinese Characters: A Genealogy and Dictionary.  N.p.: Zhongwen.com, [1998].
  • Hartmann, R.R.K.  “Thesauruses.”  In Brown and Allan, Concise Encyclopedia of Semantics, 1012-20.
  • Hartmann, R.R.K., and Gregory James.  Dictionary of Lexicography.  London: Routledge, 2001.
  • Hendrickson, Robert.  The Dictionary of Eponyms: Names That Became Words.  New York: Dorset Press, 1988.
  • Hesse, Mary.  “Laws and Theories.”  In Edwards, The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 4:404-10.
  • Houghton Mifflin.  The American Heritage Abbreviations Dictionary.  3rd ed.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005.
  • Hurford, James R.  “Semantics: Properties and relationships.”  In Frawley, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, 4:10-12.
  • Iriarte M., Fernando, ed.  Diccionario jurídico básico.  With the assistance of Arturo Alvarado M. and Sandra Milena Gallo Martinez.  Centro de Investigaciones Simón Rodríguez.  [Bogotá]: Ediciones Esquilo, n.d.
  • Jones, Sir Harold Spencer.  “The Calendar.”  In A History of Technology: Volume III; from the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution c. 1500–c. 1750, edited by Charles Singer, E.J. Holmyard, A.R. Hall, and Trevor I. Williams, with the assistance of Y. Peel  and J.R. Petty, 558-81.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1958.
  • Katamba, Francis, ed.  Morphology: Critical Concepts in Linguistics.  6 vols.  London: Routledge, 2004.
  • Keats, Jonathon.  Control + Alt + Delete: A Dictionary of Cyberslang.  Guilford: Lyons Press, 2007.
  • Katz, Stanley N., ed.  The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal HistoryVolume 4: Land–Provincial Edicts and Government.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Knowles, Elizabeth, ed.  Oxford Dictionary of Quotations.  7th ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Lane, Edward William.  Arabic-English Lexicon.  2 vols.  Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, 2003.
  • Lapesa Melgar, Rafael, ed.  Diccionario histórico de la lengua española: Seminario de lexicografía; tomo primero a–alá.  With the assistance of Salvador Fernández Ramírez, Samuel Gili Gaya, Alonso Zamora Vicente, Carlos Clavería Lizana, José Hermida López, and Manuel Seco Reymundo.  Madrid: Real Academia Española, 1972.
  • Lázaro Carreter, Fernando.  Diccionario de términos filológicos.  Biblioteca Románica Hispánica, Manuales 6.  3rd ed.  Madrid: Gredos, [1998].
  • Le Fur, Dominique, ed.  Dictionnaire des synonymes, nuances et contraires.  Collection Les Usuels.  Paris: Le Robert, 2005.
  • Lemprière, John.  Lemprière’s Classical Dictionary.  Rev. ed.  London: Bracken Books, 1994.
  • Lewis, Charlton T.  An Elementary Latin Dictionary: With Brief Helps for Latin Readers.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • [Liddell, Henry George, and Robert Scott].  A Lexicon: Abridged from Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon.  Oxford: Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1996.
  • Lindberg, Christine A., comp.  Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus.  2nd ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
  • Lutz, Donald S.  “Constitutions, United States.”  In Hall, The Oxford Companion to American Law, 150-54.
  • Lyons, John.  “The Word.”  In Katamba, ed., Morphology: Critical Concepts in Linguistics, 2:14-26.
  • Machado Schiaffino, Carlos.  Diccionario Jurídico Polilingüe: Español, alemán, francés, inglés, italiano, portugués.  Buenos Aires: Ediciones La Rocca, 1996.
  • Magnusson, Magnus, ed.  Chambers Biographical Dictionary.  With the assistance of Rosemary Goring.  5th ed.  Edinburgh: Chambers, [1993].
  • Matthews, Alison, and Laurence Matthews.  Learning Chinese Characters: A Revolutionary New Way to Learn and Remember the 800 Most Basic Chinese Characters; HSK Level A.  Tokyo: Tuttle, 2007.
  • Matthews, P.H., comp.  The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics.  2nd ed.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Mertz, Elizabeth, and Susan U. Philips.  “Institutional Linguistics: Law and Language.”  In Frawley, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, 2:286-88.
  • Morrow, Glen R.  “Aristotelianism.”  In Runes, Dictionary of Philosophy, 20-23.
  • ———.  “Common Sense.”  In Runes, Dictionary of Philosophy, 59.
  • ———.  “Common Sensibles.”  In Runes, Dictionary of Philosophy, 59.
  • Murphy, Bruce, ed.  Benét’s Reader’s Encyclopedia.  4th ed.  New York: HarperCollins, 1996.
  • Murphy, M.L.  “Synonymy.”  In Brown and Allan, Concise Encyclopedia of Semantics, 969-72.
  • Nelson, Andrew Nathaniel.  The Modern Reader’s Japanese-English Character Dictionary.  2nd ed.  Rutland: Charles E. Tuttle, 1992.
  • Norling-Christensen, Ole.  “Basic Issues in Specialised Lexicography: The Use of Computers in Specialised Dictionary Making.”  In Bergenholtz and Tarp, Manual of Specialised Lexicography, 31-47.
  • Omar, Abdul Mannân.  Dictionary of the Holy Qur’ân.  [2nd ed.]  Hockessin: Noor Foundation International, 2010.
  • Onions, C.T., ed.  The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology.  With the assistance of G.W.S. Friedrichsen and R.W. Burchfield.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary: French-English; English-French, The.  Edited by Marie-Hélène Corréard, Valerie Grundy, Jean-Benoit Ormal-Grenon, and Nicholas Rollin.  4th ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Palumbo, Giuseppe.  Key Terms in Translation Studies.  London: Continuum, 2009.
  • Passmore, John.  “Philosophy.”  In Edwards, The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 6:216-26.
  • Pina, Rafael de, and Rafael de Pina Vara.  Diccionario de Derecho.  Revised by Juan Pablo de Pina García.  35th ed.  México: Porrúa, 2006.
  • Preminger, Alex, ed.  Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics.  With the assistance of Frank J. Warnke and O.B. Hardison Jr.  Rev. ed.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.
  • Prince, Mary Miles, ed.  The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation.  18th ed.  Cambridge: Harvard Law Review Association, 2006.
  • Quinion, Michael. Ologies and Isms: A Dictionary of Word Beginnings and Endings.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Real Academia Española.  Diccionario esencial de la lengua española.  Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 2006.
  • Real Academia Española and Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española.  Diccionario panhispánico de dudas.  With the collaboration of Instituto Cervantes.  Madrid: Santillana Ediciones Generales, 2005.
  • Redford, Donald B., ed.  The Oxford Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology.  New York: Berkley Books, 2003.
  • Resnick, Philip.  “Word-Sense Ambiguity.”  In Frawley, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, 1:364-66.
  • Roberts, John, ed.  The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Roberts, Roda P., and Nancy Schweda Nicholson.  “Translation and Interpretation.”  In Frawley, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, 4:281-85.
  • Rodale, Jerome Irving, ed.  The Synonym Finder.  Revised by Laurence Urdang and Nancy LaRoche, with the assistance of Faye C. Allen, Susan L. Duquès, Catherine A. Eckert, Adela Haberski French, Vincent D. Regan, Winifred vanRoden, Jack Vestali, Barbara W. Carlson, Janet S. Muller, and Mary B. Redfield.  Emmaus: Rodale Press, 1978.
  • Rogers, Max Gray.  “Ten Commandments.”  In Crim, Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions, 750.
  • Roget, Peter Mark.  “Introduction to the Original Edition 1852.”  In Roget, The Original Roget’s Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases, xxvii-xliii.
  • ———.  The Original Roget’s Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases: For the First Time American Spelling and Usage Are Incorporated in the Original Roget.  Revised by Robert A. Dutch.  Rev. ed.  New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1965.
  • Rohsenow, John S., ed.  ABC Dictionary of Chinese Proverbs.  ABC Chinese Dictionary Series.  Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2003.
  • Runes, Dagobert D., ed.  Dictionary of Philosophy.  15th ed.  New York: Philosophical Library, 1960.
  • Segura Munguía, Santiago.  Nuevo diccionario etimológico Latín-Español y de las voces derivadas.  4th ed.  Serie Letras 34.  Bilbao: Universidad de Deusto, 2010.
  • Shipley, Joseph T.  The Origins of English Words: A Discursive Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.
  • Shorter Oxford English Dictionary: On Historical Principles.  6th ed.  2 vols.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Simpson, John, ed.  The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs.  With the assistance of Jennifer Speake.  2nd ed.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • Spears, Richard A., comp.  McGraw-Hill’s Dictionary of American Idioms and Phrasal Verbs.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.
  • Sprackling, Michael.  “Gravitation, Law of Universal.”  In Bothamley, Dictionary of Theories, 237.
  • Steinmetz, Sol.  Semantic Antics: How and Why Words Change Meaning.  New York: Random House Reference, 2008.
  • Svensén, Bo.  A Handbook of Lexicography: The Theory and Practice of Dictionary-Making.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  • Tarp, Sven.  “Basic Issues in Specialised Lexicography: Basic Concepts in Lexicography.”  In Bergenholtz and Tarp, Manual of Specialised Lexicography, 15-16.
  • ———.  “Basic Issues in Specialised Lexicography: Specialised Dictionary Functions.”  In Bergenholtz and Tarp, Manual of Specialised Lexicography, 20-28.
  • ———.  “Special Problems in Central Types of Specialised Dictionaries.”  In Bergenholtz and Tarp, Manual of Specialised Lexicography, 48-76.
  • Traugott, E.C.  “Semantic Change.”  In Brown and Allan, Concise Encyclopedia of Semantics, 853-60.
  • Troper, Michel.  “Science du droit.”  In Alland and Rials, Dictionnaire de la culture juridique.  1391-94.
  • University of Chicago Press.  The Chicago Manual of Style.  16th ed.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
  • Walters, R.S.  “Laws of Science and Lawlike Statements.”  In Edwards, The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 4:410-14.
  • Watkins, Calvert, ed.  The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.  3rd ed.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011.
  • Webster’s Third New International Dictionary: Of the English Language Unabridged; with Seven Language Dictionary.  Springfield: Merriam-Webster, [1993].
  • Wehr, Hans.  A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic.  Edited by J. Milton Cowan.  3rd ed.  Ithaca: Spoken Language Services, 1976.
  • Wilkinson, P.R.  Thesaurus of Traditional English Metaphors.  2nd ed.  London: Routledge, 2002.

Books, essays, & journals:

  • Abdul-Raof, Hussein.  Qur’an Translation: Discourse, Texture and Exegesis.  Culture and Civilization in the Middle East.  London: Routledge, [2006].
  • Adams, Henry.  The Education of Henry Adams.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
  • Alcaraz Varó, Enrique, and Brian Hughes.  El español jurídico.  Revised by Adelina Gómez.  2nd ed.  Barcelona: Ariel Derecho, 2009.
  • ———.  Legal Translation Explained.  Transaction Practices Explained 4.  Manchester: St. Jerome, 2002.
  • Alfonso X el Sabio.  Las Siete PartidasVolume 1: The Medieval Church; the World of Clerics and Laymen.  Edited by Robert I. Burns.  Translated by Samuel Parsons Scott.  Middle Ages Series.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.
  • Álvarez Calleja, Ma. Antonia.  Traducción jurídica (inglés-español).  Educación Permanente.  Madrid: Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, 2002.
  • Antoine, Rose-Marie Belle.  Commonwealth Caribbean Law and Legal Systems.  2nd ed.  London: Routledge-Cavendish, 2008.
  • Asprey, Michèle M.  Plain Language for Lawyers.  4th ed.  Sydney: Federation Press, 2010.
  • Austin, John L.  How to do Things with Words.  Edited by J.O. Urmson and Marina Sbisà.  2nd ed.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, [1975].
  • Azúa Reyes, Sergio T.  Metodología y técnicas de la investigación jurídica.  6th ed.  México: Porrúa, 2005.
  • Badry, Nawal el-.  “Arabic Lexicography in Northern Africa, with Special Reference to Egypt.”  In Hartmann, Lexicography in Africa, 36-43.
  • Barkan, Steven M.  “An Introduction to Legal Research.”  In Mersky and Dunn, Fundamentals of Legal Research, 1-13.
  • ———.  “The Legal Research Process.”  In Mersky and Dunn, Fundamentals of Legal Research, 14-20.
  • Beveridge, W.I.B.  The Art of Scientific Investigation.  [3rd ed.]  New York: Vintage Books, n.d.
  • Bowen, Alan C., ed.  Science and Philosophy in Classical Greece.  Sources and Studies in the History and Philosophy of Classical Science 2.  New York: Garland, 1991.
  • Brennan, William J., Jr.  Introduction to New York University School of Law, Fundamentals of American Law, 1-5.
  • Buck-Morss, Susan.  Hegel, Haiti, and Universal History.  Illuminations: Cultural Formations of the Americas.  Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2009.
  • Burns, Robert I.  “The Partidas: Introduction.”  In Alfonso X el Sabio, Las Siete Partidas, Volume 1: The Medieval Church; the World of Clerics and Laymen, xi-xxix.
  • Butt, Peter, and Richard Castle.  Modern Legal Drafting: A Guide to Using Clearer Language.  2nd ed.  Port Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • Cao, Deborah.  Chinese Law: A Language Perspective.  Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005.
  • ———.  Translating Law.  Topics in Translation 33.  Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 2007.
  • Carrancá y Rivas, Raúl.  El derecho y la palabra (ius semper loquitur).  México: Porrúa, 1998.
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